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Perfume Description

Find out about an 'Olfactory Triangle', an 'Olfactive Classification' or 'How To Describe A Fragrance'.

What Is A Perfume Accord ?

The sign of a sophisticated fragrance is that it has a complex ‘accord’ of ingredients rather than just a few strong fruity ingredients.

A perfumer typically describes the ‘accord’ of a fragrance using a ‘fragrance triangle’ (top, heart, base) to classify the ingredients they have used in a perfume, according to their volatility. Top notes are the most volatile and base notes the least. The heart sits at the centre of the perfume and is its very essence.

A Perfume Accord Is Like A Melody

To illustrate this further, a couture perfume may be compared with a melody.

The character of a perfume can be described using this metaphor in which fragrance 'notes' develop according to their volatility and combine to create a harmonious perfume composition.

Like music, it has an accord of deep base notes, middle notes which are its heart and top note accents which capture us and draw us in.

How Do You Describe Perfume ?

The olfactive or perfume description of a fragrance is usually presented with the help of  ‘Fragrance Triangle’.

Above is an example of a fragrance triangle or sometimes it is also referred to as an 'olfactory pyramid' or 'fragrance pyramid'.

Top Notes

Top notes are light, radiant and fresh. They are the first ingredients that one can perceive and identify when smelling a perfume. These are typically citrus, fruity, herbal or floral oils

Heart Notes

The heart is the core and very essence of the of the fragrance.

Once the top notes have developed, the flowers, spices, fruits and aromatic aspects reveal themselves.

Base Notes

The base notes (or fond) of the perfume give it depth, richness and mystique. These notes in the fond are the foundation of a fragrance and carry the accord.

The base often consists of combinations of vanilla, musk, woods and spices, which also make a fragrance longlasting.

Typically, they have a very low ‘odour dection level’ and their intensity does not reduce by much over time, both of which ensures that they linger a long time in the air or on the skin.

Perfume Description by PAIRFUM

You will find when reading a fragrance description here at PAIRFUM London, that all of our fragrances have an accord with top, heart and base notes.

Only sophisticated couture perfumes, consisting of 50-200 different fragrance ingredients on average, have top, heart and base notes.

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Olfactive Classification ? What is it?

There are literally thousands of fragrance ingredients and luxurious, sophisticated couture perfumes consist of 50-200 different scented rawmaterials.

One way to bring structure to these and to create a 'language' which allows us to speak about both the fragrant rawmaterials and the blended perfumes, olfactive classifications were introduced.

Below is an overview of the fragrance classes that most perfumers can agree upon.

Oriental Fragrances

Sophisticated, sensual perfumes created with heady substances such as musk, vanilla, exotic woods, spices, tropical flowers and other rich ingredients, such as amber, tobacco, spices, animal notes and tree resins.

These wonderfully warm notes may have facets of citrus may be used to freshen them.


This is a very large and a most widely used olfactive family and a single flower or a floral bouquet is the main theme of each creation.

It is generally split into red flowers (rose, violet,…) and white flowers (jasmin, orange blossom, tuberose, YlangYlang, honeysuckle, …).

These florals may be enriched with green, aldehydic, fruity or spicy nuances.


Frequently referred to as Fougère, or translated as "fern-like". In modern perfumery, this is one of the main olfactive families.

The name is derives from the perfume ‘Fougère Royale’ (Houbigant).


Here you find accords created around aromatic herbs (sage, rosemary, thyme, lavender,…) that are normally complemented with citrus and spicy notes.

Theirmasculine character makes them a mainstay of men's fragrances.


This olfactive family concentrates on perfume accords where the heart is one of the following woody scents: sandalwood, patchouli, vertiver or cedar. Hints of citrus or aromatics are typically added to round them of.These are warm and elegant fragrances and more masculine in nature.

Sandalwood and patchouli tend to be warm and more opulent in character, whereas cedar and vetiver feel dryer in style.

Citrus Fragrances

Known in the perfumery world as ‘hesperidics’, these fragrances with a fresh and light character are built around notes of citrus such as lemon, lime, orange, bergamot, petit grain, grapefruit, neroli and tangerine.

These accords typically have elements of other orange-trees (orange blossom, petit grain, neroli), flowers (white flowers) or hints of chypre but also aromatic, woody and spicy materials to give depth and richness.

The family includes all types of ‘Eaux Fraîches’ and was typified by the first ‘Eaux de Colognes’.

Amber Fragrances

A fozzilised tree resin, Amber is valued for its colour and beauty fossilized tree resin which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty through the ages.

In perfumery, ‘amber’ accords reflect the golden colour and its rich warmth. The scents tend to be musky, honey-like, oriental and earthy in combination with elements of vanilla, spices (e.g. clove), labdanum, benzoin resin or incense.


The notes in this group are typically based around an accord of oak moss, ciste-labdanum, patchouli and bergamot. Other woody, mossy and floral notes may be added and even replace some of the element. The richness of these fragrances mixes beautifully with citrussy, lavender, leathery or fruity notes.

Chypre accords are rich and long-lasting in character. An early and classic example of this family is ‘Chypre’ by Coty (1917).


This olfactive group has no limits: beautiful, fruity fragrances with berries (strawberries, raspberries, loganberries, blueberries, ...), sweet juicy fruit (peaches, nectarines, mango, papaya, ...), tropical fruit (coconut, pineapple,... ), Kiwi, melons, ... there are always new enticing fruit varieties to try.

Unlike the afore mentioned catogories, Skin Care and Toiletries products typically take the lead here. Shower gels, soaps or lotions are more likely to introduce a new type of fruit than an Eau de Toilette.

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